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GMAT Verbal Examples
Critical Reasoning - Assumption Questions
Our modern mass culture derives many of its dubious notions about Ancient Egypt from Hollywood films, and especially from those on Biblical subjects. Hollywood, in turn, adopted many of these misconceptions from the writings of the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus. Science has now confirmed that on one matter about which Herodotus and Hollywood were in agreement, they were both mistaken. The discovery and subsequent analysis of the characteristics of the tombs of the workers who participated in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza provides evidence confirming something that Egyptologists have believed for a long time: that those who raised the Pyramids were not slaves but rather paid workers - free men who, the archaeologists speculate, perhaps felt a degree of pride in participating in the construction of the tomb of their Pharaoh, but who at any rate were definitely not the teams of unwilling slaves depicted in Hollywood epics.
Which of the following assumptions underlies the argument in the passage above?
- Paid workers are more suitable than are slaves to raise long-lasting constructions such as the Great Pyramid of Giza.
- The characteristics of the tombs of those who worked on the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza are representative of those of the tombs of the workers who participated in the construction of all the other C) Pyramids.
- In ancient Egypt, slaves were not buried in tombs, either when the Great Pyramid of Giza was constructed or earlier on in Egyptian history.
- Hollywood adopted the view that the Pyramids were built by slaves only because that view was sustained by Herodotus.
- There was sufficient population in ancient Egypt to provide the full-time paid work-force necessary for the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza, given that it was not built by slaves.
Critical Reasoning - Inference Questions
In Botswana, the Ocavango Delta, in reality a flood-plain, is inundated by the waters of the Ocavango river for some three or four months every year, thus becoming a swamp. The large population of lions living there, far from abhorring water, has become accustomed to moving through it and has learned to hunt in it, given that the antelopes on which its members prey spend more time feeding in the swamps than grazing on dry land. In being relatively at ease in water, these lions resemble jaguars and tigers. They have also grown a longer, fluffier coat, a local adaptation to the fact that the loss of body heat takes place twenty times faster in water than in air. Furthermore, when the plain is flooded, the various prides have come, surprisingly, to allow the incursion of other prides into their territory, since the animals on which they feed tend to move rapidly from one of these territories to another. These facts show that lions are not as immovably averse to water, and not as fiercely territorial, as is commonly thought.
Which of the following can be inferred on the basis of the facts cited above?
- The lions of the Ocavango Delta are on the way to developing into a rather different species of lion.
- During the eight or nine months in which the Ocavango Delta is not flooded, the lions in that area revert to the forms of behavior held to be characteristic of lions.
- The antelopes on which the lions prey would be safer out of the water than in it.
- The evolution of species is accelerating in the Ocavango Delta as a result of the very peculiar conditions that prevail in the area.
- Adaptations to a particular environment do not necessarily depend on that environment's being the prevailing one.
The ocean nearest in size to the Atlantic is the Indian, but it is different from the other one in that it is a relatively warm body of water with few plankton and therefore comparatively little marine life.
- but it is different from the other one in that it is a relatively warm body of water with few plankton
- but the latter is different from the former because it is a relatively warm body of water with few plankton
- but the latter is different from the former in that it is a relatively warm body of water with little plankton
- but it is different from the other because it is a relatively warm body of water with little plankton
- but the latter is different from the first in that it is a relatively warm body of water with few plankton
The first edition of Dr Roget's Thesaurus was published in 1852, and in the subsequent editions of the work the author's son and grandson tried improving the coherency and layout by making changes that nevertheless left intact the original scheme of the thesaurus.
- tried improving the coherency and layout by making changes that nevertheless left intact the original scheme of the thesaurus
- tried to improve the coherency and layout by making changes leaving the original scheme of the thesaurus nevertheless intact
- tried to improve the coherency and layout by making changes that nevertheless left the original scheme of the thesaurus intact
- tried improving the coherency and layout that made changes leaving the original scheme of the thesaurus nevertheless intact
- tried to improve the coherency and layout by making changes that left nevertheless intact the thesaurus's original scheme
Line Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilized resin is called amber. Although Pliny in the rst century recognized that amber was produced from "marrow discharged by trees," amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks. Confusion also persists surrounding the term "resin," which was de ned before rigorous chemical analyzes were available. Resin is often confused with gum, a substance produced in plants in response to bacterial infections, and with sap, an aqueous solution transported through certain plant tissues. Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin.
In the 1950s, entomologists posited that resin may function to repel or attract insects. Fraenkel conjectured that plants initially produced resin in non-specific chemical responses to insect attack and that, over time, plants evolved that produced resin with specific repellent effects. But some insect species, he noted, might overcome the repellent effects, actually becoming attracted to the resin. This might induce the insects to feed on those plants or aid them in securing a breeding site. Later researchers suggested that resin mediates the complex interdependence, or "coevolution," of plants and insects over time. Such ideas led to the development of the specialized discipline of chemical ecology, which is concerned with the role of plant chemicals in interactions with other organisms and with the evolution and ecology of plant antiherbivore chemistry (plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects ).
According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?
- Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.
- A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin.
- A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.
- Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects.
- Researchers rst studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.
Of the following topics, which would be most likely to be studied within the discipline of chemical ecology as it is described in the passage?
- Seeds that become attached to certain insects, which in turn carry away the seeds and aid in the reproductive cycle of the plant species in question
- An insect species that feeds on weeds detrimental to crop health and yield, and how these insects might aid in agricultural production
- The effects of deforestation on the life cycles of subtropical carnivorous plants and the insect species on which the plants feed
- The growth patterns of a particular species of plant that has proved remarkably resistant to herbicides
- Insects that develop a tolerance for feeding on a plant that had previously been toxic to them, and the resulting changes within that plant species
The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to
- give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past
- show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin
- make note of the rest known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem
- point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber
- demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral
GMAT Quantitative Examples
1) The jewels in a certain tiara consist of diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. If the ratio of diamonds to rubies is 5⁄6 and the ratio of rubies to emeralds is 8⁄3, what is the least number of jewels that could be in the tiara?
- 16 %
- 22 %
- 40 %
- 53 %
- 67 %
2) At a certain pizzeria, 1/8 of the pizzas sold in one week were mushroom and 1/3 of theremaining pizzas sold were pepperoni. If n of the pizzas sold were pepperoni, how many were mushroom?
- (3/8) n
- (3/7) n
- (7/16) n
- (7/8) n
4) The addition above shows four of all the different integers that can be formed by using each of the digits 2, 3, 4, and 5 exactly once in each integer. What is the sum of all these integers?
1) If k is an integer less than 17 and k - 1 is the square of an integer, what is the value of k?
|(1) k is an even number.|
|(2) k + 2 is the square of an integer.|
- Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.
- Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.
- BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
- EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
- Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
2) A group of 49 consumers were offered a chance to subscribe to 3 magazines: A, B, and C. 38 of the consumers subscribed to at least one of the magazines. How many of the 49 consumers subscribed to exactly two of the magazines?
|(1) Twelve of the 49 consumers subscribed to all three of the magazines.|
|(2) Twenty of the 49 consumers subscribed to magazine A.|
- Statement 1 alone is sufficient to answer the question, but statement 2 alone is not sufficient.
- Statement 2 alone is sufficient to answer the question, but statement 1 alone is not sufficient.
- Both statements together are needed to answer the question, but neither statement alone is sufficient.
- Either statement by itself is sufficient to answer the question.
- Not enough facts are given to answer the question.
4) Let A be the set all outcomes of a random experiment and let B and C be events in A. Let C̅ denote the set of all the outcomes in A that are not in C and let P (B) denote the probability that event B occurs. What is the value of P (B)?
- P (B ∪ C) = 0.7
- P (B ∪ C̅) = 0.9
GMAT Integrated Reasoning Examples
Type 1: Graphics Interpretation Questions
The graph shows the percent profit earned by two companies, P and Q, on their investments.
In which year was the ratio of investment to income greatest for Company P?
Select: 2008, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2004
If the income of Company P in 2006 was the same as the income of Company Q in 2003, what would be the ratio of investment of company Q in 2003 to the investment of company P in 2006?
Select: 9:10, 10: 9, 13:15, 15:13
Type 2: Two – Part Analysis Questions
The following is an extract from a sports commentator's speech, which discusses a fictitious location, called Sanura, on a playing field.
“And now we can see that in the final minutes of the match, almost all the players have gathered in anticipation near the only gate where the goal can be scored and are waiting for the ball to be thrown into play. Each coach puts one defenseman from his team in Sanura. While until recently controlling Sanura was considered a good idea only at the beginning of a game when a face-to-face game was developing, now it has become clear that even in situations like this one, when the play is occurring far from Sanura, it is crucial to put some players there. "
Based on the definition of the fictitious word Sanura as inferred from the extract above, which of the following events CAN happen in Sanura and which CANNOT? Make only two selections, one in each column
|0||0||Throwing a ball from the line|
|0||0||Getting sports trauma|
|0||0||Scoring a goal|
|0||0||All members of one team gathering together|
|0||0||member of different teams meeting|
Type 3: Table Analysis Questions
|Genre||Rental €||Rental Rank||Sales %||Sales Rank|
|AND IT IS||NOT|
|0||0||For all genres that Mark's leads in rentals, it does not always lead in sales|
|0||0||all other stores combined rent more Documentaries than Mark's does|
|0||0||No single store more than 25% of the town's Drama movies|
Type 4: Multi-Source Reasoning Questions
News article in a popular business publication
June 7 - If current trends continue, farmed seafood will overtake ocean fishing as the world's largest source of seafood by 2025. Aggressive overfishing of the world's oceans and the inability of world governments to agree on fishing limits mean that farming will become critical to the industry's ability to meet worldwide seafood demand. Additionally, recent concerns about mercury levels in wild-caught fish have led many consumers to prefer farmed fish, further creating increased demand for this relatively new source of seafood.
Interview with a well known scientist in a technology journal
July 2 - Dr. Jason Dempster, one of the world's most outspoken critics of the seafood industry's unwillingness to curb its output in order to protect the fish population, suggests that more than two dozen popular species may become virtually extinct in the next several decades.
«I understand that consumers keep buying the seafood, and fishermen are naturally going to meet demand wherever they can find it. However, if something isn't done to meet the demand another way, by the middle of this century even something as common as tuna may become a delicacy only the world's wealthiest families can afford. ”
Article from a weekly news magazine
July 20 - Demand for tilapia, one of the world's most popular species of fish, has grown 1000% over the last decade as people around the world have discovered it as a low-cost fish that goes well with a variety of foods. This increased demand has encouraged countless tilapia farms to open in China, and American officials have expressed concern that not all tilapia imported from China meets US safety standards. Some experts in the US have called for creating more stringent standards for all seafood imports, but Chinese authorities warn that this may dramatically increase the cost of seafood imported into the United States.
Consider each of the following statements. Does the information in the three articles support the inference as stated?
|AND IT IS||NOT|
|0||0||The world's governments usually do not agree with one another on how to deal with matters related to fishing and seafood farming.|
|0||0||An increase in worldwide demand for tilapia has driven the world's ocean fish population to dangerously low levels.|
|0||0||Dr. Dempster supports an increase in fish farming.|
|0||0||Chinese tilapia farms have led some US consumers to worry about the levels of mercury in their seafood.|
GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment Sample Essay
Analysis of An Argument Example
"The recent surge in violence in the southern part of the city is a result of a shortage of police officers and an absence of leadership on the part of the city council. In order to rectify the burgeoning growth of crime that threatens the community, the city council must address this issue seriously. Instead of spending time on peripheral issues such as education quality, community vitality, and job opportunity, the city council must realize that the crime issue is serious and double the police force, even if this action requires budget cuts from other city programs."
In the argument above, the author concludes that the city council is not doing its job well and needs to focus on expanding significantly the police force in order to combat recent growth in the level of crime. The premise of the argument is that crime is expanding while the city council focuses on ostensibly unrelated matters such as education reform. However, the argument is flawed because it falsely assumes that the city council's efforts to improve quality of life are entirely unrelated to levels of violence and it assumes that the crime problem can be solved by merely increasing the police force.
First, the argument wrongly assumes that issues of educational opportunity, community vitality, and job availability have no bearing on crime. However, the author fails to support this assumption. It is entirely possible that the crime level spiked due to a recent and sizeable layoff at a major nearby factory that pushed countless citizens out of work and onto the streets. With individuals struggling to survive, it should come as no surprise that people are turning to crime.
Second, the reasoning in the editorial is flawed because it erroneously assumes that increasing the police force will directly address the root of the crime problem and reduce the level of crime. Yet, a landmark study published in early 2008 showed that increasing the size of a police force beyond a certain point provides extremely small marginal returns in the reduction of crime. Given the fact that the local police force is already above this threshold, the editorial's author wrongly assumed that a doubling of the police force will materially decrease the crime rate.
Moreover, the argument could be improved by appealing to the city's history with fighting crime and managing the size of its police force. In particular, approximately 25 years ago, the city council faced a situation very similar to the one it faces today: a rising crime rate and growing spending on community development. The city council decided to increase the size of its after-school programs' budget by about 75% and this reduced crime dramatically. Faced with the same situation today, the city council should follow the path it took 25 years ago.